195 Broadway, 29-story building in the Financial District, is also known as the Telephone Building, Telegraph Building, or Western Union Building.
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. That was the foundation of the company that would become AT&T , AT&T Corporation, formerly American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
American Telephone and Telegraph Company built much of the United States’ long-distance and local telephone networks and become the world’s largest corporation and a standard for the telecommunications industry. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company was founded in 1885 by Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish-born scientist who invented the first practical telephone.
Bell made the first call on March 10, 1876, in his Boston workshop to his assistant, Thomas Watson: "Mr. Watson--come here--I want to see you".
On October 9, 1876, Bell and Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. A year after Bell and two investors, Gardiner C. Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, formed the Bell Telephone Company.
His fiancée, Mabel insisted he show his new telephone at the Centennial celebration in Philadelphia. When Dom Pedro the emperor of Brazil heard Bell reciting Shakespeare over the transmitter, he was astounded. Such a crowd gathered around the exhibition the police were summoned. Later President Rutherford B. Hayes was quoted as saying, "That's an amazing invention, but who would ever want to use one of them?" Later on he had one installed and called it "the greatest invention since the creation". His first call was to Alexander Graham Bell.
Bell's first telephone call was so famous, he repeated the phrase in 1915 in the formal opening of the completed transcontinental telephone lines connecting America's East and West co
asts. Dr. Watson replied, "It will take me five days to get there now!"
The building at 195 Broadway was constructed under the leadership of AT&T's president Theodore Newton Vail, who was the president of American Telephone & Telegraph between 1885 and 1889, and again from 1907 to 1919. Construction started in 1913 and completed in 1922. It was here where in January 1915 Bell placed the first transcontinental phone call, ringing Watson in San Francisco from New York.
195 Broadway was the site of the world’s first transatlantic phone call. On January 7, 1927, the first official transatlantic telephone call was made when W. S. Gifford, president of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, calls Sir Evelyn P. Murray, secretary of the General Post Office of Great Britain, on the new commercial circuit.
Genius of Telegraphy ( or Golden Boy) has been the symbol of AT&T since 1916. The statue was originally installed atop the Fulton Street wing of the AT&T, 195 Broadway. At that time it was New York City's second-largest sculpture, after the Statue of Liberty!
The gold-leaf covered statue weighs 18,000 pounds and depicts a winged figure holding up a handful of lightning bolts. It stood on the roof for more than 64 years. Original name of the statue was Genius of Telegraphy, but later it was changed to Spirit of Communication. It was moved to another Manhattan location on 550 Madison Avenue in 1983. In 1992, a ceremony was held when the statue crossed state lines to come to the company’s operational headquarters in Basking Ridge, where it stood until 2002. And now the Golden Boy resides inside the lobby of the company’s global headquarters on Akard Street in Dallas.
At 10 Rockefeller Plaza, the grand lobby is visited only by those who work in the building or by the official Rockefeller Center tour. But everybody can walk in an enjoy the beautiful mural that wraps around three walls of the space. Rockefeller Center complex, named after John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who leased the space from Columbia University in 1928, changed the form of mid-town Manhattan. It became one of the most successful Urban Planning projects in the history of American architecture.
Rockefeller Center is a combination of two building complexes: the older and original fourteen Art Deco office buildings and a set of four International-style towers built along the west side of Avenue of the Americas during the 1960s and 1970s. An office tower at 10 Rockefeller Plaza between 48th & 49th Streets is one of the old ones. The lot was not developed until 1937 - there was a parking lot on this site.
Netherland-America Foundation was founded in New York in 1921. The Dutch, and especially its American-based business community, had a need to substantially improve its public image in the United States. On February 15, 1938, the Foundation organized a reception at the Cosmopolitan Club, during which an ambitious plan was unveiled for the establishment of a Holland House at the newly built Rockefeller Center. A sizeable fund of $100,000 had been raised from the Dutch government and the Dutch-American business community, and several months later further plans were announced.
The Holland House at 10 Rockefeller was open in 1939.
The Center was comprised of the offices of the Foundation, the Chamber, the Consulate and the Netherland Club. An art gallery and the Holland House Taverne, a Dutch-theme restaurant, were opened on the premises as well. Holland House Taverne remained in business until the mid-1960s when it gave way to a Charley O's. The cuisine was a mix of Dutch, American and Indonesian cuisine. Indonesia was still a Dutch colony at that time and Indonesian food is still as popular in the Netherlands today.
|Holland House Taverne|
When the German army invaded the Netherlands on May 10, 1940, a group of prominent Dutch-Americans met at the Holland House and decided to launch the Queen Wilhelmina Fund " to aid the Red Cross in the Netherlands". Because of the Hitler's invasion
full occupancy of the house was cut short by of the Netherlands. In 1946 a new tenant, Eastern Airlines, settled in the building.
Eastern Air Lines was a major American airline from 1926 to 1991.
It had a near monopoly in air travel between New York and Florida from the 1930s until the 1950s and dominated this market for decades afterward. Eastern pioneered hourly air shuttle service between New York City, Washington, DC and Boston in 1961 as the Eastern Air Lines Shuttle.
Honoring the building’s tenant in 1946, Eastern Airlines, the Rockefellers commissioned popular illustrator and muralist Dean Cornwell to create a vision of transportation.
Dean Cornwell is relatively unknown now but at that time his illustrations were already popular in Harper’s Bazaar and Cosmopolitan . During his time, Cornwell was as popular as Norman Rockwell.
Dean Cornwell created three beautiful murals, called Night Flight, New World Unity and Day Flight in the lobby of 10 Rockefeller. Cornwell worked for two years researching and developing the images he would use.
The artist portrays all modern forms of air transportation in silver while antecedents of the modern airplane ( modern in the middle of the 20th century) are in gold.
The murals portrayed the machine age from Leonardo Da Vinci's days to the present. The murals extend 45 feet in length and 20 feet in height across the north and the south walls of the lobby.